Socratic Questioning

Socratic questioning is applied for practice of discipline through thoughtful dialogue. This questioning process leads students to examine their ideas logically and determine the validity of those ideas. Socratic questioning is known as learner centered teaching approach that provides guidelines for students to develop their critical thinking skills. This learning approach leads students to engage in analytical discussion of the relevant topic and creates environment for independent learning and thinking. This questioning process can be applied to explore ideas, to identify the origin of ideas, to reveal assumptions and to analyze complex problems. In general, this learning approach can be used to understand fundamental concepts, theories, principles, and applied problem solving. R.W. Paul shows six types of questions Socratic questions that can be used for the practice of discipline through thoughtful dialogue. These six questions are shown as follows:

(1) Questions for clarification i.e. Why do you say that?

(2) Questions for testing assumptions i.e. How does theory derive these
assumptions? Do they consistent with the reality?

(3) Questions about perspectives i.e. What are the other alternatives?

(4) Questions about implications and consequences i.e. What are generalization
that can be made using this theory?

(5) Questions about questions i.e. Why did you say like that

(6) Questions about reasons and empirical evidence i.e. Can you provide some
examples to prove your claims


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