Critical Perspectives

It is very important to understand that there are critical perspectives in addition to critical theory. These critical perspectives come from different fields of studies.  They attempt to change existing unequal social, political, economic, and education structure by recognizing and challenging ideological domination and manipulation. These changes are termed as postmodernism, multiculturalism, critical management studies, and critical human resource development etc. These critical perspectives lead us to question about existing assumptions of the social system and transform it into novel society. Postmodernism is emerged in the 20th century and criticized the idea of “absolute truth” or “meta-narrative”.  Meta-narrative is a grand story or shared account which is not questioned. For example, neo-classical economists believe that international trade plays a significant role in economic growth of developing countries. In general, western society considers that consumerism or consumption indicators are success of human wellbeing. Postmodernism questions about the validity of such thinking in relation to real world experience. This critical thinking process helps policy makers to understand the reality in practice. Multiculturalism give considerable attention to the multiple and diverse cultures in the society. In other words, multiculturalism respects unique identities and contribution of their cultures. Multicultural education aims to create inclusive environment where appreciate the cultural diversity of adult learners. According to multiculturalism perspectives, curriculum developers should take into account the diversity of current class rooms at post-secondary institutes and should prepare it to reflect multicultural values and perspectives. Critical management studies (CMS) critically evaluates the management theory and practice and aim to protect power among managers and executives. CMS also try to create accountable managerial actions because managers have significant impacts on the life of employees and other stakeholders.CMS considers that management and business are above all other interests. This notion is known as managerialism. Particularly, CMS focuses any groups who are marginalized in organization and management relationship. Critical human resource development (CHRD) emerge in early 2000s and focuses on human resource management activities and how such activities creates conflicts in an organization.

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